The guided-missile destroyer USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000) was delivered to the US Navy in April 2020. Credit: U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Emiline L. M. Senn/Released.
DDG 1000 has a 'tumblehome' hull form, in which the hull slopes inward. Credit: US Navy photo / General Dynamics.
Zumwalt (DDG 1000) floats out of dry dock at the General Dynamics Bath Iron Works shipyard. Credit: US Navy photo / General Dynamics.
DDG 1000 has a crew of 158, which is a major reduction compared to crew levels of 330 on Spruance destroyers and 200 on Oliver Hazard Perry frigates. Credit: US Navy.
Zumwalt (DDG 1000) sails in the Atlantic Ocean during at-sea tests in December 2015. Credit: US Navy photo / General Dynamics Bath Iron Works.

DDG 1000 Zumwalt, the first vessel built under the US Department of Defense’s (DoD) DD(X) programme, was delivered to the US Navy in May 2016. The ship was commissioned for service in October 2016.

The US DoD renamed the DD 21 programme as DD(X) in November 2001. The programme is focussed on a family of advanced technology surface combatants rather than a single ship class.

A revised request for proposals was issued, and in April 2002, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, Ingalls, was selected as the lead design agent for DD(X). Northrop Grumman led the ‘gold team’, which included Raytheon Systems Company as the systems integrator.

The ‘gold team’ proposal incorporates ‘blue team’ leader Bath Iron Works (a General Dynamics company) as a subcontractor for design and test activities. Other major subcontractors include Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems Land and Armaments (formerly United Defense) and Boeing.

Zumwalt class orders and deliveries

In November 2005, DD(X) was approved for system development and demonstration (SDD). In April 2006, the USN announced that the first ship of the class will be designated DDG 1000 Zumwalt.

The second ship was named Michael Monsoor (DDG 1001) in October 2008.

The USN budget for the 2007 and 2008 financial year provided funding for the first two ships to be built by General Dynamics Bath Iron Works and Northrop Grumman Ship Systems rather than hold a competition as was previously anticipated. Bath Iron Works received a $250m contract to provide detailed design for the Zumwalt Class destroyers in 2007.

The US Navy awarded the contract for the construction of the first two ships to General Dynamics (DDG 1000) and Northrop Grumman (DDG 1001) in February 2008.

“Zumwalt is the first US Naval surface combatant to feature all-electric propulsion.”

The construction of DDG 1000 began in February 2009 and that of DDG-1001 began in September 2009. The DDG 1000 was launched in October 2013.

The number of ships required was planned to be between eight and 12, but in July 2008, the US Navy announced that the DDG 1000 programme would be cancelled after completion of the first two ships. The USN will instead continue with construction of further Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) destroyers.

However, in August 2008, the USN announced its decision to provide funding for a third Zumwalt Class destroyer. In April 2009, it was announced the DDG-1000 programme would end with the third ship.

The DDG 1000 ship was delivered to the US Navy with the activated combat system in April 2020. It is the first full-electric power and propulsion ship in the US Navy. It features advanced critical technologies, including a communication and intelligence system, as well as an offensive strike missile.

In April 2012, DDG 1002 was named USS Lyndon B Johnson after the nation’s 36th president.

The USS Lyndon B Johnson will be the third Zumwalt class destroyer. The vessel construction began in April 2012.

The DDG 1001 (USS Michael Monsoor) and DDG 1002 (Lyndon B Johnson) with advanced technologies are expected to be delivered in September 2020 and September 2022 respectively.

Recent developments of the Zumwalt programme

The US Navy awarded a task order to CSC in March 2011 to provide engineering and programme support for the DDG 1000 Zumwalt class destroyer.

In February 2011, General Dynamics Bath Iron Works received a contract to provide additional systems engineering services, which deal with detail design and construction of the Zumwalt (DDG 1000) class destroyer.

In September 2011, General Dynamics Bath Iron Works received a $1.8bn fixed-price-incentive contract to build DDG 1001 and DDG 1002. The contract excludes the superstructure of DDG 1001, which is being built by Northrop Grumman’s spun-off shipbuilding arm Huntington-Ingalls Industries.

Northrop Grumman completed DDG 1000 system design and 11 engineering development models (EDM) and the system-wide critical design review was successfully completed in September 2005.

The EDMs include advanced gun system, integrated power system, composite deckhouse, a peripheral vertical launch system, integrated sonar system (with advanced towed array and high-frequency active sonar) and dual-band radar suite.

A decommissioned Spruance class destroyer (USS Arthur W Radford) serves as the test platform for the DDG 1000.

DDG 1000 replaces the DD 21 Zumwalt programme, which was for a class of 32 multi-mission destroyers to replace Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates (FFG 7) and Spruance class destroyers (DD 963) from 2012.

Unlike previous classes of the destroyer, which were primarily to counter deep-water threats, the DD 21’s primary mission would be to provide land-attack support for ground forces and carry out traditional destroyer missions of anti-air, anti-surface and undersea warfare.

DDG 1000 Zumwalt class design

DDG 1000 has a ‘tumblehome’ hull form, a design in which hull slopes inward from above the waterline. This significantly reduces the radar cross-section since such a slope returns a much less defined radar image rather than a more hard-angled hull form.

Requirements for the integrated deckhouse EDM is that it is fully electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-shielded with reduced infrared and radar signatures. Measures to fulfil these conditions include an all-composite superstructure, low-signature electronically steered arrays, an integrated multifunction mast, and low radar and infrared signatures.

Other measures to reduce the vessel’s infrared signature include the development of an exhaust suppressor.

Harris Corporation has been awarded a contract for the development of the common data link (CDL) X/Ku-band phased array antenna systems, which are integrated into the integrated deckhouse assembly. The multi-beam electronically steered antenna allows connectivity with up to eight CDL terminals.

Zumwalt measures 100ft longer and 13ft wider in size than Arleigh Burke class ship. The DDG 1000 has a displacement of 15,761t with a sustained speed of 30k.

Crew on board the Multimission destroyer

DDG 1000 has a crew of 158, including the aviation detachment. This represented major theoretical cost saving compared to crew levels of 330 on Spruance destroyers and 200 on Oliver Hazard Perry frigates.

Zumwalt class command and control

In November 2007, Raytheon IDS was awarded the contract as the prime mission systems integrator for all electronic and combat systems.

Raytheon delivered the first electronic modular enclosure (EME) for the Zumwalt class destroyer (DDG 1000) in May 2010.

The combat system is based on the total ship computing environment (TSCE), utilising open architecture, standardised software and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. Raytheon delivered more than six million lines of software for the DDG 1000 Zumwalt class destroyer programme in January 2013.

General Dynamics is responsible for the common enterprise display system (CEDS).

DDG1000 weaponry

DDG 1000 features a sensor and weapons suite optimised for littoral warfare and for network-centric warfare. Northrop Grumman has proposed a solution based on a peripheral vertical launch system (PVLS).

The solution consists of 20 four-cell PVLS situated around the perimeter of the deck, rather than the usual centrally located VLS. This would reduce the ship’s vulnerability to a single hit.

The advanced vertical launch system (AVLS) that forms the basis of the PVLS was developed by BAE Systems Land and Armaments and Raytheon and has been designated the mk57 VLS.

Missile systems include tactical tomahawk (intended to succeed Tomahawk TLAM), standard missile SM-3 and the evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM) for air defence.

BAE Systems Land and Armaments was awarded the contract to develop the EDM for the ship’s advanced gun system (AGS), building on development work carried out for DD-21.

It is equipped with a fully automated weapon handling and storage system and a family of advanced munitions and propelling charges, including the GPS-guided long-range land-attack projectile (LRLAP). Up to 900 rounds of LRAP ammunition is carried.

Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract for the LRAP EDM.

The family of munitions includes land attack and ballistic projectiles. Technologies derived from the US Navy’s extended-range guided munition (ERGM), the US Army 155mm XM-982 projectiles and the DTRA 5in projectile are being studied for incorporation into the projectile suite.

BAE Systems Land and Armaments developed advanced gun barrel technologies for the new AGS with improvements to barrel life, overall system performance and lifecycle costs.

The ship’s close-in gun system (CIGS) is the BAE Systems Land and Armaments 57mm mk110 naval gun. The gun has a firing rate of 220 rounds a minute and range of 14km (nine miles). Raytheon IDS is supplying the ship’s electro-optical / infrared suite, which has five Lockheed Martin sensors and provides 360° surveillance and gunfire control.

Radar and sonar on board the Zumwalt Class destroyer

The radar suite comprises dual-band radar for horizon and volume search, a Lockheed Martin S-band volume search radar (VSR) integrated with the AN/SPY-3 multifunction radar already being developed by Raytheon for the US Navy. The two radars are to be integrated at the waveform level for enhanced surveillance and tracking capability.

The AN/SPY-3 multifunction radar (MFR) is an X-band active phased-array radar designed to detect low-observable anti-ship cruise missiles and support fire-control illumination for the ESSM and standard missiles.

The ship’s Raytheon AN/SQQ-90 integrated undersea warfare system includes AN/SQS-60 hull-mounted mid-frequency sonar, AN/SQS-61 hull-mounted high-frequency sonar and AN/SQR-20 multifunction towed array sonar and handling system.

The DDG 1000 ship design includes two landing spots for helicopters.

All-electric propulsion system

Zumwalt is the first US Naval surface combatant to feature all-electric propulsion. Its Integrated Full Electric Propulsion (IFEP) system has 72MW propulsion power.

The DDG 1000 integrates an all-electric drive with an integrated power system (IPS), consisting of two main turbine generators (MTG), two auxiliary turbine generators (ATG) and two 34.6MW advanced induction motors (AIM). A 78MW power station provides electricity to the IPS.

The electric drive eliminates the need for the driveshaft and reduction gears and brings benefits in acoustic signature reduction, an increase in available power for weapon systems and improvements in the quality of life for crew. The all-electric propulsion of Zumwalt also generates 58MW of additional reserved power, allowing the integration of future high-energy weapons and sensors.

DRS Technologies’ power technology unit received development contracts for the PMM motors, electric drive and control system for the IPS.

However, in September 2007, Converteam (formerly Alsthom Power Conversion) was awarded the contract for the IPS with a solution based on advanced induction motors (AIM). In August 2009, Converteam received another contract from the US Navy to supply long-lead materials for Zumwalt Class destroyer DDG-1000 under the high-voltage power subsystem (HVPS) project.

The Rolls-Royce MT30 36MW gas turbine generator set was selected to power the IPS EDM. Rolls-Royce delivered the first set in February 2005. Rolls-Royce was awarded a contract for four MT30 sets for the first two DDG-1000 destroyers in March 2007.

The MT30 has 80% commonality with the Rolls-Royce Trent 800 aero engine and Rolls-Royce states that it is the most powerful marine gas turbine in the world. CAE supplies the integrated platform management system.

GE Power Conversion was chosen to supply electric propulsion and power management systems for three Zumwalt Class vessels.

Contractors involved in Zumwalt class

Temeku Technologies received a contract from the US Navy in August 2009, for the procurement of the flight deck lights (FDL) on Zumwalt Class destroyer.

In April 2010, Colfax Corporation received a contract from the US Navy to supply SMART technology systems to the first two DDG-1000 Zumwalt Class destroyers.

Raytheon received a $72m contract in January 2019 to provide engineering and logistics support for DDG 1000.